Projected Salt Excretion and you will Dangers of Death and you will Cardio Occurrences

Projected Salt Excretion and you will Dangers of Death and you will Cardio Occurrences

To further explore the potential effect of imbalanced confounders, we performed propensity-score–matched sensitivity analyses 30 that compared a high estimated sodium excretion (?6.00 g per day) with a moderate level (3.00 to 5.99 g per day) and that compared a low estimated sodium excretion (<3.00 g per day) with the moderate level. In a secondary analysis, we examined the association between an estimated “usual” level of sodium or potassium excretion and death and cardiovascular disease, with correction for regression dilution bias (with the use of repeated measurements in 448 participants). 31 All analyses were conducted with the use of SAS software, version 9.2, for the UNIX operating system (SAS Institute).

Investigation Users and you can Outcomes

The study included 101,945 participants, 42% of whom were from China. The mean estimated 24-hour sodium excretion was 4.93 g, and the mean estimated 24-hour potassium excretion was 2.12 g ( Table 1 , and Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher among participants with a higher estimated sodium excretion (P<0.001). The mean duration of follow-up was 3.7 years, with follow-up completed for 95% of the participants. The primary composite outcome of death or a major cardiovascular event occurred in 3317 participants (3.3%): 1976 participants died (650 from cardiovascular causes), 857 had myocardial infarction, 872 had stroke, and 261 had heart failure. Participants may have had more than one cardiovascular event.

Committee A says a finite-cubic-spline plot of one’s connection ranging from projected 24-time urinary sodium removal and also the ingredient result of death from any end up in and you will biggest aerobic events. The spline bend is truncated during the g daily (experience rates one of professionals having salt excretion > grams just about every day, 8 incidents when you look at the 305 people). Committee B shows a restricted-cubic-spline spot of your own relationship ranging from projected salt excretion and passing. Case speed certainly one of people that have sodium excretion of more than g a-day try 5 occurrences for the 305 people. Committee C suggests a finite-cubic-spline spot of one’s association anywhere between projected salt excretion and you can big aerobic incidents (recognized as death out of aerobic causes, myocardial infarction, heart attack, otherwise cardio incapacity). The function speed certainly players having sodium removal of greater than g just about every day is actually six events during the 305 users. Most of the plots was indeed modified to own age, gender, geographical region, educational peak, ancestry (Far-eastern vs. non-Asian), alcoholic drinks intake, body-size list, and you can status with regards to diabetic issues mellitus, history of cardiovascular incidents, and newest puffing. Dashed traces imply 95% believe times. This new median salt excretion (cuatro.72 g each day) was the fresh new resource practical, shown from the red-colored range. To convert the prices to own estimated salt removal to salt intake during the grams every day, multiply from the dos.5.


As compared with an estimated sodium removal off 4.00 so you’re able to 5.99 g every single day (the fresh resource classification), projected removal from 7.00 grams daily or more are of the improved risks of your first chemical consequences (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% rely on period [CI], 1.02 to 1.30), dying away from one produce (potential proportion, step one.25; 95% CI, step one.07 to just one.48), a major cardio experiences (chance proportion, step 1.16; 95% CI, step 1.01 to a single.34), dying from aerobic explanations (possibility ratio, step one.54; 95% CI, step one.21 to just one.95), and you may stroke resulting in passing otherwise hospitalization (odds proportion, step 1.29; 95% CI, step 1.02 to just one.63) towards multivariable studies ( Desk 2 and you will Figure step 1 , and Desk S2 regarding Additional Appendix). The brand new organization anywhere between a top projected salt excretion (?seven.00 g per day) therefore the primary compound consequences, major cardio events, and you can coronary arrest ultimately causing passing or hospitalization is actually attenuated and was no further tall once modifications to have hypertension otherwise early in the day medical diagnosis of blood circulation pressure but stayed significant for dying regarding one end in ( Dining table dos , and you can Desk S2 on the Secondary Appendix).

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